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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 1593-1600

Effects of lead exposure on biomarkers of thyroid and renal function tests among panel beaters in Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria


1 Department of Community Medicine, Universeity of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/ Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria
2 Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria/ University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/ Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria
3 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria/ University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/ Ozalla, Enugu State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. I A Meka
Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria/University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_1845_21

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Background: Occupational lead (Pb) exposure causes multisystem effects at high and sustained low doses. However, there are inconsistencies in the dose–response effects on the thyroid and kidneys. Aim: This study aimed to assess the effects of Pb exposure on the biomarkers of thyroid and renal functions among panel beaters in Enugu Metropolis, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study of 428-panel beaters selected using a multistage sampling technique. Blood lead (BPb), thyroid, and kidney biomarkers were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometer at 238.3 nm wavelength, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and automated chemistry analyzer, respectively. Analyses were performed using median, mean, Chi-square, correlation, and statistical significance. Results: The median BPb levels were 10.0 μg/dl among participants with about half, 211 (49.3%) having BPb within reference levels. Though the mean values of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and creatinine (Cr) were within the reference values, the majority of 275 (64.25%) of the participants had non-euthyroid statuses. Significant differences were found in TSH (P = 0.001), thyroid status (P = 0.0129), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.00384) between those with BPb within reference level and those with elevated levels. Conclusion: Though the mean levels of thyroid hormones and Cr were within their respective reference intervals, there was a preponderance of non-euthyroid status among participants in the present study with the majority of the participants falling within CKD grades 2 and 3.


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