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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 7  |  Page : 1004-1013

Perioperative mortality among surgical patients in a low-resource setting: A multi-center study at District hospitals in Southeast Nigeria


1 Department of surgery, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (AEFUTHA), Ebonyi State; Department of Surgery, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki; District Hospital, Nsukka; Bishop Shanahan Specialist Hospital, Nsukka, Enugu State; Mater Misericordie Hospital, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
2 Department of surgery, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (AEFUTHA), Ebonyi State; Department of Surgery, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria
3 Department of surgery, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (AEFUTHA), Ebonyi State; Department of Surgery, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
4 Department of Surgery, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki; Mater Misericordie Hospital; Department of Anaesthesia, AEFUTHA, Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
5 Department of surgery, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki (AEFUTHA), Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. A U Ogbuanya
Department of Surgery, Alex Ekwueme Federal University Teaching Hospital, PMB 102, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_1291_21

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Background: The perioperative mortality rate (POMR) has been recognized as a useful indicator to measure surgical safety at an institutional or national level. The POMR can thus be used as a tool to identify procedures that carry the highest mortality rates and provide hindsight based on past surgical experiences. Aim: To document the pattern of perioperative mortality and the factors that influence it at district hospitals in southeast Nigeria. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study of cases of perioperative mortality at district hospitals in southeast Nigeria between January 2014 to December 2018. All perioperative mortalities from surgical admissions in both elective and emergency set-ups were included. During analysis, we computed P values for categorical variables using Chi-square and Fisher's exact test in accordance with the size of the dataset. Furthermore, we determined the association between some selected clinical variables and mortality using logistic regression analyses. Results: During the period under review, 254 perioperative deaths occurred from 2,369 surgical operations, giving a POMR of 10.7%. Of the 254 deaths, there were 180 (70.9%) males and 74 (29.1%) females. Nearly one-third (31.2%) were farmers and 64.2% of the deaths occurred in those 50 years and below. Delayed presentation was two-pronged: delay before presentation and in-hospital delay. The POMR was the highest among general surgery emergencies and least among those with plastic surgery conditions. The observed factors associated with mortality were time of presentation (early or late), type of surgery (emergency or elective), category of surgery (general surgery or others), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (high or low), place of admission after surgery (intensive care unit or general ward), level of training of doctors who performed the surgery (specialist or general duty doctor) (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The POMR was higher in male patients and in those with general surgery emergencies compared to other conditions. Delayed presentation, high ASA scores, and operations performed under emergency set-ups were associated with elevated POMRs.


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