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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 923-930

Management and outcome of colorectal cancer in a resource-limited setting: Ahmadu Bello university teaching hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

1 Department of Radiology, Oncology Unit, Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria
2 Department of Radiology, Bingham University, Plateau, Nigeria
3 Department of Oncology, Federal Medical Centre, Jabi, Abuja, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. H Theyra-Enias
Department of Radiology, Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital, P.O.BOX 9727, Lafiya Road, Kaduna, Kaduna State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_1948_21

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Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies seen in the Western World. It is increasing in developing countries due to adaptation of the western lifestyle with an incidence of 6% in Nigeria. Treatment options are dependent on the stage of disease at presentation, the performance status of the patient, and increasingly the molecular makeup of the tumor. There is a dearth of data on the treatment options obtainable for the management and outcome of CRC cases in Northwestern, Nigeria. Aim: The study assessed the treatment options and outcome of colorectal cancer patients in a tertiary institution, in Northwestern, Nigeria over a 10-year period. Patients and Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2015, data of one-hundred and twenty-two histologically confirmed colorectal cancer cases seen at the Surgery, Radiotherapy and Oncology Departments, ABUTH Zaria, were retrieved retrospectively from the case files and treatment cards of the patients at the health information unit of the hospital. The stage at disease presentation, treatment received, and outcome were analyzed. Results: Nearly a quarter of the patients fell within the age bracket 31–40 years with the median age being 41 years. While only 41% of the patients had their disease staged, 30.4% of the patients presented with advanced disease (Dukes'C + D). Only 95 cases received a form of surgery or the other. Colostomy however accounted for 28.4%. Eighty-nine of the patients received chemotherapy either as neoadjuvant, adjuvant or with palliative intent. External beam radiotherapy either with radical or palliative intent was received by 60 patients (49.2%). At 1-year follow-up sixty cases had been lost to follow up, and thirty-six cases had defaulted on one form of treatment. Conclusion: The study showed that stage at presentation and the available treatment options in the hospital informed treatment offered to the patients. However, surgery was readily performed due to the pattern of presentation and most patients benefited from just a diverting colostomy. Majority of the patients presented with rectal tumor which required radiotherapy as part of its treatment modality, although this is still a luxury in this part of the world. Chemotherapy is also readily available and often prescribed. Cost and limited facility for biomarker (K-ras) testing restrict the use of targeted therapy. Outcome at 1-year follow-up was poor with whereabouts of nearly half of the patients unknown.

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