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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 454-465

Skeleto-dental features among a sample of Saudi female children compared to British standards: A cephalometric study


Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

Date of Submission15-Sep-2021
Date of Acceptance30-Dec-2021
Date of Web Publication19-Apr-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. E I AlShayea
P. O. Box 15158, Riyadh – 11444
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_1819_21

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   Abstract 


Aim: This cross-sectional observational retrospective study aimed at assessing the cephalometric skeleto-dental features of class I, II, and III skeletal relationship of Saudi female school children sample and comparing the results to the established British Caucasian cephalometric standards. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 205 retrospective lateral cephalometric radiographs of female school children. The age range of the subjects were between 10 and 13 years old with a mean age of 11 ± 1 years. Several cephalometric and constructed points were identified. Angular, linear, and proportional measurements were obtained and analyzed. The skeleto-dental features of class II and class III were compared to class I of this sample and then compared with the established British Caucasian population. Different angular, linear, and proportional variables were investigated. Descriptive statistics and Student's t-test were used for data analysis. Results: The distribution of the skeletal relationship revealed that 68.3% of the sample showed class I relationship, 16.1% class II, and 15.6% class III. The result indicates significant differences among the different classes. A greater tendency towards class II facial pattern and more convex profile among Saudis were detected in the present study compared to Caucasians. Furthermore, The dento-alveolar relationship results showed more bi-maxillary protrusion among Saudi females compared to the British Caucasians. Conclusion: The results of the study can serve as a base-line for future investigations in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the results obtained can also be of great value in distinguishing the various skeleto-dental features in the different skeletal classes among the Saudi females, and in the clinical diagnosis and treatment planning.

Keywords: Caucasians, cephalometric, classifications, norms, Saudi female children, skeleto-dental


How to cite this article:
AlShayea E I, Almoammar K, Alsultan M, Albarakati S F. Skeleto-dental features among a sample of Saudi female children compared to British standards: A cephalometric study. Niger J Clin Pract 2022;25:454-65

How to cite this URL:
AlShayea E I, Almoammar K, Alsultan M, Albarakati S F. Skeleto-dental features among a sample of Saudi female children compared to British standards: A cephalometric study. Niger J Clin Pract [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 May 22];25:454-65. Available from: https://www.njcponline.com/text.asp?2022/25/4/454/343460




   Introduction Top


Skeletal Discrepancy has a major role in producing malocclusion. A thorough assessment of the skeletal discrepancies in three dimensions, which are anteroposterior, vertical, as well as transverse, are imperative for proper diagnosis and treatment planning. One of the main aims of orthodontic treatment is to improve the facial esthetics. A patient with skeletal discrepancy may require the correction of the skeletal relationships as well as dental occlusion. Thus, in addition to the established information regarding dental malocclusion, an accurate knowledge about the skeletal disharmony is important for the planning and understanding of orthodontic treatment and management.[1],[2],[3]

The skeletal relationship has been the subject of interest and concern for many studies. Most of the previous studies of the skeletal relationship have focused on the craniofacial norms of Chinese, Caucasians, and Western Societies.[4],[5],[6] In addition, several studies have been conducted to establish craniofacial norms of different Arab countries such as Kuwaiti, Yemeni, United Arab Emirates, and Jordanian population.[7],[8],[9],[10] In Saudi Arabia, though a number of studies had been carried out to determine the extent of malocclusion and to evaluate the cephalometric measurements of Saudi individuals according to various standards, there is no evidence of published standards for Saudi cephalometric norms, and still orthodontists refer to and apply Caucasian norms when treating Saudi patients.[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19] The objectives of the present study were to investigate the various types of skeletal classes in a group of female school children in Saudi Arabia, to determine the cephalometric skeleto-dental features of class II and class III skeletal relationship compared to class I, and to compare the results of cephalometric skeleto-dental features of class I for the Saudi sample to the established British Caucasian cephalometric standards.


   Materials and Methods Top


This is a cross-sectional observational study conducted to assess and compare the cephalometric skeleto-dental features of class I, class II, and class III skeletal relationships of Saudi sample to the established British Caucasian cephalometric standards (The research was approved by the IRB ethics committee. The date of approval is 18 June 2020, and renewed on 26 October 2021). The sample in the present study consisted of 205 retrospective lateral skull radiographs of Saudi female school children, which were derived from a large sample (850 radiographs) that was conducted in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The age range of the subjects were between 10 and 13 years old with a mean age of 11 ± 1 years. Lateral skull radiographs were taken with the head in natural head position. The subjects were selected based on the following inclusion criteria:

  1. The radiographs should be of high quality.
  2. The first permanent molars should be in occlusion.
  3. There should be no cleft or craniofacial deformities.
  4. There should have been no previous orthodontic treatment.
  5. All radiographs utilized in the present study were derived from a single source with a fixed distance between the subject and the source of the x-ray of 6 feet, and the same exposure being made by one machine.


The radiographs were traced under standardized procedures using sharp 3H lead pencil on fine acetate tracing papers. This was performed in a darkened room to obtain maximum contrast and to facilitate landmark identification. Several cephalometric and constructed landmarks were identified and recorded in sequence. Each radiograph with the identified landmarks was digitized by the investigators in a predetermined sequence using digitizer linked to a Mackintosh SE computer. From these coordinated landmarks, horizontal and vertical planes were derived automatically and plotted on the monitor. Furthermore, 18 angular, 17 linear, and 2 proportional measurements were obtained and presented for analysis [Appendix 1]. In the present study, the skeleto-dental features for the Saudi sample, by using the early mentioned angular, linear and proportional measurements [see Appendix 1], were assessed by comparing the values of class II and class III skeletal relationships to class I group, which was considered as a control group, to establish Saudi cephalometric standards and to compare them to the established cephalometric standards reported by Bhatia and Leighton (1993) for British Caucasians.[20]

Statistical analysis

The magnification factor was calculated and found to be 10.6% and was registered into the computer to compensate for enlargement of the linear measurements. In addition, Dahlberg's double determination method error, correlation coefficient, and the Student's t-test were used to determine the intra-examiner reliability of readings, when they were performed by the same examiner 3 weeks later on 30 randomly-selected lateral cephalometric radiographs, and also to determine the inter-examiner reliability, when the same 30 radiographs re-traced and re-digitized by the other investigator within the same week. The inter-examiner and intra-examiner correlations showed significant reliability and minimum method errors of all readings as demonstrated by high coefficient values ranging from 0.97 to 0.99 (p < 0.001). G*Power software analysis was used to calculate the statistical power and estimate sample size for the three groups. At significance level (α) equals 0.05 and power 92%, the sample size for each group should be at least 30 subjects to achieve study objectives.[21]

Descriptive statistics were performed among various experimental groups. The Student's t-test was applied for comparison among the control group (class I) and class II and class III skeletal relationship. In addition, the t-test was applied to compare the control Saudi group with British Caucasian norms. In all statistical assessments performed, the level of significance was recognized at 95% level of confidence (p < 0.05) to indicate the statistical significance between the studied variables. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software package (Version 22, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).


   Results Top


The frequency and percentage of skeletal classification of the Saudi females based on ANB angle were presented in [Figure 1]. It is clear from the results that skeletal class I constitutes the highest percentage (68.3%), whereas skeletal class II and class III exhibited relatively similar percentage of 16.1% and 15.6%, respectively. The findings of skeleto-dental characteristics of class II and class III compared to class I skeletal relationship of Saudi females were divided into five sections: Skeletal relationship, cranial base, maxilla, mandible, and dento-alveolar relationship. The results of the analysis of skeletal relationships showed that there were significant differences between class II and class I, and also between class III and class I in anteroposterior skeletal relationships. However, there were no significant differences for most of the comparison in terms of vertical relationships, except for SN/MP1 SN/occ in class III alone, Y-axis angle and facial axis angle for both class II and class III, and ramus height in class II alone as presented in [Table 1]. The t-value and level of significance results of the cranial base, maxillary, and mandibular measurements, angular and linear, for class II and class III compared to class I skeletal relationship of Saudi females were presented in [Table 2]. It is clear that there were no significant differences between all classes in both angular and linear measurements of the cranial base. However, the results of maxillary measurements showed that there were significant differences between skeletal class I, class II, and class III in both angular and linear measurements. The level of significance in class II compared to class I skeletal relationship was very high. Furthermore, the results of the mandibular measurements demonstrated significant differences between skeletal class I and class II skeletal relationship. In contrast, no significant differences were reported with skeletal class III when compared to skeletal class I except in one measurement (pog/N ┴ FH in mm) that was statistically significant.
Figure 1: Pie chart of the frequency and percentage of skeletal classification among Saudi female children based on ANB angle

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Table 1: The t-value and level of significance of different angular and linear measurements for class II, class III skeletal relationship of Saudi females compared to class I in anterioposterior and vertical skeletal relationships

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Table 2: The t and level of significance of different cranial base, maxillary, mandibular, and dento-alveolar relationship measurements (angular and linear) for class II and class III compared to class I skeletal relationship of Saudi females

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With regard to the last variable, the results of dento-alveolar relationship measurements were presented in [Table 2] including the maxillary incisor position, mandibular incisor position, and maxillary–mandibular inter-incisal angle. The maxillary incisor position, or skeletal class II angulation was statistically significant when compared to skeletal class I and class III. In addition, mandibular incisor position and angulation showed significant differences between the three skeletal classes except for one linear measurement of lower incisor to A-Pog, when skeletal class II was compared to skeletal class I. Regarding maxillary–mandibular incisor relation, the inter-incisal angle showed statistical significant difference when skeletal class II was compared to skeletal class I. However, no statistical significant difference was observed between skeletal class III and skeletal class I.

The results of the comparison between the skeleto-dental characteristics of Saudi females class I skeletal relationship as a control group and the established norms of British Caucasians were also divided into five sections similar to the previously mentioned variables. [Table 3] showed a highly statistical significance between the mean value of Saudi control group compared to the established Briitish Caucasian value results in anteroposterior skeletal relationship as well as in vertical relationship except in the angle of convexity, ramus height, S-Go, and N-Me. The t-value and level of significance results of the cranial base, maxillary, mandibular, and dento-alveolar measurements, angular and linear, for Saudi control group compared to the established British Caucasian values were presented in [Table 4]. The results showed significant differences with the cranial base measurements except in the linear measurement of S-N. Similarly, the result of the maxillary and mandibular measurement revealed highly statistical significant differences between the Saudi and British sample. Furthermore, the results of the dento-alveolar relationship measurements in terms of maxillary incisor position, mandibular incisor position, and maxillary–mandibular incisor position [Table 4] showed high statistical significant differences, and some degree of bimaxillary proclination for both maxillary and mandibular incisor positions (angular and linear measurements) when the Saudi sample was compared to the established British Caucasian population.
Table 3: Comparison of skeleto-dental characteristics of Saudi females class I skeletal relationship, as a control group, to established mean value of British Caucasian (BC)

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Table 4: Comparison of different cranial base, maxillary, mandibular, and dento-alveolar relationship measurements (angular and linear) between Saudi females class I skeletal relationship as a control group and established mean value of British Caucasian (BC)

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   Discussion Top


Understanding the nature of the skeletal deformity and the identification of the standard features for each racial group is an important aspect in orthodontics; to provide keys for proper diagnosis and the treatment planning of orthodontic patients. Hence, the aims of the present study were to investigate the various types of skeletal classes in a group of female school children in Saudi Arabia, to determine the cephalometric skeleto-dental features of class II and class III skeletal relationship compared to class I, and to compare the cephalometric skeleto-dental results of class I of the Saudi sample to the established British Caucasian cephalometric standards.

The circum pubertal age range (10–13 years old) was selected in this retrospective cephalometric study to ensure proximity of the subjects to the pubertal growth peak when maturational skeletal changes are more intense and noticeable. Also, this circum pubertal age range is the most common age range for individuals to receive their orthodontic treatment because of the appropriateness to perform growth modification therapy and the coincidence with the full eruption of permanent dentition.[22] In this study, only female subjects were included to rule out any gender-dependent variability in the sample. Some differences in the timing of morphological changes in growth pattern between boys and girls have been reported.[23]

The widely accepted use of the ANB angle as a method for skeletal classification was adopted in this study. The frequency of skeletal discrepancy among the 205 Saudi females was found with higher prevalence of class I (68.3%), followed by class II (16.1%) and class III (15.6%). This finding is consistent with the results of several researchers who conducted randomized clinical trials and concluded that class I malocclusion was the most common type of malocclusion among Saudi population.[19],[24],[25] In addition, the cases with a class III skeletal relation in the present sudy was larger than that in the Caucasian population, which has a percentage of less than 5%.[26] The facial, skeletal, and dental features for several measurements among Saudi female school children were assessed in the present study. A similar and comparable result was found with another study by Hassan[16] who established cephalometric norms for children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia. In addition to Hassan's measurements, this study measured additional parameters such as AB plane angle, SN/Occ angle, FH/Occ angle, Facial angle, Gonial Angle, Posterior to anterior facial height ratio (%), cranial base measurements, A/N ┴ FH, Maxillary Length, Pog/NB, mandibular body length, Upper incisor to A ┴ FH, and Upper incisor A-Pog line. All these additional measurements can be used as a reference in orthodontic treatment of Saudi young female children.

In comparison of the skeleto-dental features of Saudi females to the established British Caucasian population, significant differences were found between Saudis and British Caucasians (P ≤ 0.001) in anteroposterior relationships except in the angle of convexity that showed insignificant difference. These differences between the two groups can be potentially attributed to sample size and different ethnic background of the subjects. A greater tendency toward class II facial pattern and more convex profile among Saudis were detected in the present study compared to British Caucasians. A similar result was found in another study by Albarakati,[27] and Alshayea et al.[28] when the skeleto-dental features of Saudi female children were compared with North American standards. The angular and linear measurements of the various vertical skeletal relationships showed significant differences between class I skeletal relationship of Saudi sample when compared to British Caucasian population except for the total anterior facial height, total posterior facial height, and ramus height. This contradicts the finding of an earlier research that compared the Saudis to the North American standards. It found that with the exception of gonial angle, significant differnences were observed at 0.001% level.[28]

The lower facial height measured from ANS to Me showed a significant difference between Saudi and British Caucasians, which indicates that the Saudi sample has relatively less excessive vertical anterior development. Similar finding was illustrated by Alshayea et al.[28] who compared the skeleto-dental features of Saudi female children with North American standards.

Furthermore, the comparison of vertical height proportion also showed highly significant difference between the Saudi and British Caucasian samples. This difference may be due to the variation in the samples. The linear measurements of the cranial base showed no significant differences between the Saudi female and British caucasian for anterior cranial base unlike the North American samples in previous study.[28] However, posterior cranial base and the saddle angle (measured from NS to Ar) revealed significant difference between the Saudi female and the British samples. This could be due to either variation in the samples or landmark identification. Statistical differences were observed in the relative position of maxilla (SNA), mandible (SNB), and short maxillary length when Saudi females were compared to British Caucasian standards. This contradicts the finding of several researchers who found that there was no statistical difference in SNA and SNB between the Saudis and the North American samples, although Saudi showed a greater tendency toward Class II facial pattern.[28],[29] Other angular and linear measurements of the mandibular position and size showed significant differences between Saudi and British samples (P < 0.001). This finding was consistent with the conclusion of other research.[28]

The dento-alveolar relationship results showed statistically significant differences in all variables studied and more proclined incisors among Saudi females compared to the British Caucasians. This finding was in consistent with studies carried out on other Saudi samples.[12],[27],[28],[29] When comparing the skeleto-dental characteristic features of the Saudi females to the established means for British and North American Caucasians, it was found that the Saudi female was nearer to the British sample than the North American Caucasian.[28]

Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size, and the gender limitation to female subjects only. Therefore, further studies are required with a large randomly selected sample of both males and females from different provinces of the Kingdom, with more variables to be studied, e.g., soft tissue and gender effect.


   Conclusions Top


Class I malocclusion was the most common type of malocclusion among Saudi population. However, the cases with a class III skeletal relation was larger than that in the Caucasian population. A greater tendency toward class II facial pattern and more convex profile among Saudis were detected in the present study compared to British Caucasians. Furthermore, the dento-alveolar relationship results showed more bi-maxillary protrusion among Saudi young female children compared to the British Caucasian standards. In addition, Saudi females were nearer to the British sample than the North American Caucasian.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the College of Dentistry Research Center and Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia for funding this research project. (research project # FR 0616).

Financial support and sponsorship

This research project was supported by a grant from the a grant from the College of Dentistry Research Center and Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



Constructed landmarks



The Horizontal Plane



The Vertical Planes



Angular Measurements



Linear Measurements



Proportional measurements





 
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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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