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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 8  |  Page : 1225-1233

Bacteriological Profile and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns in Clinical Isolates from the Out-Patient Departments of a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria

1 Institute of Lassa Fever Research and Control, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Microbiology, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Edo State, Nigeria
3 Department of Biological Sciences, Ondo State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. E A Tobin
Institute of Lassa Fever Research and Control, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_8_20

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Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a rising global public health threat. Knowledge of the circulating pathogens in a particular area and their antibiotic resistance profile is essential to direct clinicians on rational antibiotic prescribing. Aim: The study was conducted to determine the microbial isolates and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of pathogens from a range of clinical samples in a tertiary hospital in Edo Central Senatorial District in Edo State, Nigeria. Settings and Design: The study was a retrospective analysis of microbiological isolates from clinical specimens collected between January 2016 and December 2019, using standard techniques from outpatient clinic attendees. Chi-square test was used to compare the association of the type of bacterial isolates with patients' sex and level of significance P set as < 0.05. Prevalence rates of bacterial isolates and resistance rates were calculated for each antibiotic used in the microbiological culture. Results: Of the 3,247 clinical specimens processed, 994 (30.6%) showed microbial growth with 436 (43.9%) as gram-positive and 558 (56.1%) as gram-negative bacterial isolates. Escherichia coli (E. coli) made up 286 (28.8%) of all the isolates. Resistance to cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and cloxacilin for gram-poisitive pathogens was 93.1%, 86.4% and 72.5% respectively. For gram-negative pathogens, resistance to amoxycilin, cloxacilin and erythromycin was 100%, 96.9% and 95.6% respectively. Sensitivity to carbapenems, nitrofurantoin, and cefixime was high for gram-negative bacteria (100.0 %,76.8 % and 82.5 % respectively). Gram-positive bacteria exhibited high sensitivity to carbapenems ceftriaxone and cefixime. Conclusion: High rates of resistance to common antibiotics were observed for gram-positive and gram-negative isolates. Hospital pharmacies and treatment guidelines should be made to reflect the current patterns of resistance to available antibiotics.

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