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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 12  |  Page : 1759-1765

Atherogenic and cardiovascular risks of women on combined oral contraceptives: A comparative study

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Ilorin/University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria
3 Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Ilorin/University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria
4 Department of Physiology, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
5 Department of Community Medicine and Primary Care, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria
6 Department of Chemical Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. O S Jimoh
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre, PMB 3031, Abeokuta
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_431_20

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Background: Although combined oral contraceptive (COC) is commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa, data on its cardiovascular disease risk remains scanty. The study aimed to determine serial serum lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risks among COC-users. Methods: This is a prospective, comparative multicentered study conducted at four health facilities in Nigeria. Participants were new users of contraceptives; 120 each of women initiating COCs (group I) and those initiating other forms of nonhormonal contraceptives (group II) were recruited and monitored over a 6-month period. Serial lipid profile, blood pressure, and atherogenic risk for cardiovascular diseases were measured at recruitment (start) and scheduled follow-up clinic visits at 3 months and 6 months for all participants. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS (version 21.0) and P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In all, 225 participants (111 COC-users, 114 nonCOC-users) that completed the study were aged 18 to 49 years. There was a statistically significant increase in the diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.001), Low Density Lipoprotein- Cholesterol (P = 0.038) and higher atherogenic risk (P = 0.001) among COC-users compared to nonCOC-users. The serial total serum cholesterol, triglyceride, High Density Lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index were higher among COC-users but were not statistically significant compared to nonCOC-users. Conclusion: Alterations in lipid profile and increased short-term atherogenic risk for cardiovascular disease were reported among the COC-users in this study. Serial lipid profile and atherogenic risk assessment for cardiovascular diseases are recommended for monitoring of COC-users.

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