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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 11  |  Page : 1649-1655

Comprehensive evaluation of factors that induce gingival enlargement during orthodontic treatment: A cross-sectional comparative study

1 Department of Stomatology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, PR China
2 Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Division of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Thamar University, Dhamar, Yemen
4 Department of Pathophysiology, Key Lab of Neurological Disorder of Education Ministry, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, PR China; Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Saba Region, Marib, Yemen

Correspondence Address:
Prof. J Mao
Department of Stomatology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13, Hangkong Road, Wuhan - 430030
PR China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_69_21

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Background: Gingival enlargement (GE) is one of the most common soft tissue problems encountered during fixed orthodontic treatment. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the factors affecting GE in adolescents and young adults, compared with their normal peers. Subjects and Methods: This is a cross-sectional comparative study. The sample consisted of 329 subjects (ages 10–30 years) of both genders, which was divided into four main groups: The control group (G0) with no orthodontic treatment; subjects who underwent orthodontic treatment were divided according to treatment duration into G1 (4–12 months), G2 (13–24 months), and G3 (>24 months). The clinical examinations included the level of debris, calculus (simplified oral hygiene), and GE indices. Regression analyses were used to assess the GE association in all the studied groups. Results: The mean GE score increased significantly with increased treatment duration (0.42 ± 0.29 for G0 and 1.03 ± 0.52 for G3). GE scores of the lower arch were significantly higher in the anterior segment than in the posterior segment among all treatment groups. Regression analysis revealed that gender, age, oral hygiene, and treatment duration had a significant effect on GE (P < 0.05), while angle classification, overjet, overbite, treatment stage, bracket type, and therapeutic extraction did not show significant associations (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Gender, age, oral hygiene, and treatment duration were the most important risk factors for GE during fixed orthodontic treatment.

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