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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 189-194

Erythropoietic Response to Anaemia of Dialysis Naïve Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Zaria, North-West Nigeria

1 Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Kaduna State University College of Medicine, Kaduna State, Nigeria
2 Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
3 Department of Medicine, Nephrology Unit, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. L G Dogara
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Kaduna State University College of Medicine, Zaria, Kaduna
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_208_17

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Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem with an increasing prevalence worldwide. Anemia is one of its consistent and severe hematological complications although its mechanism is not fully elucidated. The primary defect could manifest as serum erythropoietin (sEPO) deficiency or EPO resistance. We set out to determine the erythropoietic response to anemia of patients with CKD and its relationship with their iron status in a cross-sectional descriptive study of 91 patients in various stages of CKD. Materials and Methods: Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), sEpo, and serum ferritin levels were determined using ELISA method (Diagnostic Automation Inc and WKEA med supplies corp.). Data generated were analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.3 and level of statistical significance was set at ≤0.05. Results: Participants comprised of 50 females (54.9%) and 41 (45.1%) males with an overall mean age of 47 ± 15 years. The major causes of CKD were hypertension (HTN) (50.54%), diabetes mellitus (DM) (6.59%), and HTN + DM (19.78%). The mean hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of the participants was 10.97 ± 2.28 g/dl; the red cell indices were within normal ranges except for Red cell distribution width-Coefficient of variation (%) which was elevated (16.29%). The mean serum ferritin, sTfR, and sEpo were 70.58 ± 46.44 ng/ml (interquartile range [IQR] 82.00), 22.9 ± 49.7 ng/ml (IQR 15.00), and 12.49 ± 33.47 IU/L (IQR 6.00), respectively, with a high variance. Serum ferritin and sTfR are consistently low across the stages of CKD (range between 54.54 ng/ml and 88.64 ng/ml), but sEPO for stage 3 and 4 showed a 2-fold increase when compared to normal level at Hb 10.97 g/dl (29.54 IU/L and 38.83 IU/L, respectively). Correlation between sTfR and sEpo (r2 = 0.96, P = 0.001), while between sEpo and serum ferritin (r2 = 0.02, P = 0.185), and between Hb and stage of CKD undulating (r2 = 0.41, P = 0.001). Conclusion: In contrast to some existing literature, this study has demonstrated that EPO resistance and iron deficiency contributes to anemia in CKD and serum ferritin can be used to assess the iron level of dialysis naïve CKD patients at every stage of the disease.

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