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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 1150-1155

Environmental factors that determine visual skill development of under-fives in a developing country

1 Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, Bingham University/Bingham University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria
2 Department of Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello University/Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
3 Department of Ophthalmology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
A O Jimoh
Department of Paediatrics, College of Health Sciences, Bingham University/Bingham University Teaching Hospital, Jos - 930 214
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_438_16

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Introduction: During the early years of life, children get most of their information by relying on their visual observation. Knowledge of visual skill development and environmental risk factors influencing it provides useful guide for early identification of children who may develop some form of visual impairment. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the visual developmental pattern and determine the environmental risk factors associated with delay in the visual skill area of under-five children. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 415 preschoolers aged 6–59 months. Visual function and visual comprehension were assessed using the Schedule of Growing Skills II tool (GL Assessment Ltd., London). Delay in the visual skill was defined as a developmental quotient in visual skill area below threshold point of 85%. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) (95% CI). Alpha value was set at P < 0.05. Results: Mean age of the children studied was 32.6 ± 15.9 months. The prevalence of delay in visual skill area was 17.1%. The odds of delay in visual skill were higher among children of first birth order (AOR 1.83; 95% CI 1.05–3.30), those who lived in large households (AOR 2.34; 95% CI 1.32–3.14), children whose mothers had secondary level education and below (AOR 2.21; 95% CI 1.31–3.83), and those whose fathers earned ≤$100 per month (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.01–3.03). Conclusion: Identification and management of environmental factors negatively affecting visual skill development will help improve on the visual skill area and invariably child development.

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