Medical and Dental Consultantsí Association of Nigeria
Home - About us - Editorial board - Search - Ahead of print - Current issue - Archives - Submit article - Instructions - Subscribe - Advertise - Contacts - Login 
  Users Online: 506   Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 247-252

Towards improving cervical cancer screening in Nigeria: A review of the basics of cervical neoplasm and cytology


Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus/University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
C C Dim
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus (UNEC), P.M.B. 01129, Enugu - 400 001
Nigeria
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1119-3077.100615

Rights and Permissions

Cervical cancer screening is the key to reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in developing countries. In the absence of a national screening program, healthcare givers in Nigeria are encouraged to routinely inform and screen eligible women. This review aims at equipping health workers for this task by re-educating them on the basics of the disease and its screening by cytology. Relevant texts and online databases including Pubmed, African Journal Online, and Google Scholar, were searched for relevant literature on the subject area. Persistent infection by a high-risk human papilloma virus, especially types 16 and 18, is necessary for the development of cervical cancer. The exfoliation of cells from the metaplastic squamous cells of transformation zone of the cervix is the basis of cervical cytology. Organized Pap screening reduces the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but screening protocols vary. Nevertheless, annual screening is not recommended except for high-risk women such as HIV-positive women. Abnormal Pap smear results are currently reported using either the Bethesda System or the British Society for Clinical Cytology classification, and colposcopy with or without biopsy are necessary when indicated. In conclusion, the use of cervical cytology to detect pre-cancerous lesions followed by an appropriate treatment when necessary is the key to reducing invasive cervical cancer. The task of provider-initiated counseling and testing for cervical cancer by health practitioners requires update on the current etio-pathology of cervical cancer, and its screening as reviewed.


[FULL TEXT] [PDF]*
Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed5972    
    Printed134    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded1052    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 3    

Recommend this journal